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Thursday, 20 October 2016

(1S,2S) 1-phenylpropane-1,2-diol, (1S,2S)-PPD


Abstract Image
Biotransformations on larger scale are mostly limited to cases in which alternative chemical routes lack sufficient chemo-, regio-, or stereoselectivity. Here, we expand the applicability of biocatalysis by combining cheap whole cell catalysts with a microaqueous solvent system. Compared to aqueous systems, this permits manifoldly higher concentrations of hydrophobic substrates while maintaining stereoselectivity. We apply these methods to four different two-step reactions of carboligation and oxidoreduction to obtain 1-phenylpropane-1,2-diol (PPD), a versatile building block for pharmaceuticals, starting from inexpensive aldehyde substrates. By a modular combination of two carboligases and two alcohol dehydrogenases, all four stereoisomers of PPD can be produced in a flexible way. After thorough optimization of each two-step reaction, the resulting processes enabled up to 63 g L–1 product concentration (98% yield), space-time-yields up to 144 g L–1 d–1, and a target isomer content of at least 95%. Despite the use of whole cell catalysts, we did not observe any side product formation of note. In addition, we prove that, by using 1,5-pentandiol as a smart cosubstrate, a very advantageous cofactor regeneration system could be applied.

Stereoselective Two-Step Biocatalysis in Organic Solvent: Toward All Stereoisomers of a 1,2-Diol at High Product Concentrations

 IBG-1: Biotechnology, Forschungszentrum Jülich GmbH, 52425 Jülich, Germany
 Piramal Healthcare UK Ltd., Division of Biocatalysis, The Wilton Centre, R345, TS10 4RF Redcar, United Kingdom
Org. Process Res. Dev., Article ASAP
DOI: 10.1021/acs.oprd.6b00232
Publication Date (Web): September 19, 2016
Copyright © 2016 American Chemical Society

Tuesday, 18 October 2016


1-(2-Methoxy-4-nitrophenyl)-4-(p-tolyl)-1H-1,2,3-triazole (3a), (Table 2, entry 1):
Using method A described above with 2-methoxy-4-nitroaniline
(1a). After purification by flash column
chromatography (25% AcOEt/hexanes, Rf = 0.45), 359 mg
of 3a (79%) were obtained as a yellow solid. Mp > 190 °C;

1H-NMR (400 MHz, CDCl3) δ 8.46 (s, 1H), 8.16 (d, J = 8.8
Hz, 1H), 8.05 (d, J = 8.8 Hz, 1H), 7.97 (s, 1H), 7.79 (d, J = 7.8 Hz, 2H), 7.26 (d, J =
7.8 Hz, 2H), 4.08 (s, 3H) 2.41 (s, 3H) ppm;

13C{1H} NMR (100 MHz, CDCl3) δ 150.6,
148.1, 148.0, 138.6, 131.1, 129.7, 127.3, 125.9, 125.1, 121.1, 116.8, 108.0, 57.0,
21.4 ppm; HRMS (EI) calcd. for C16H13NO3 310.1066 [M+]; found 310.1060.

Org. Process Res. Dev., Article ASAP
DOI: 10.1021/acs.oprd.6b00292

Handling Hazards Using Continuous Flow Chemistry: Synthesis of N1-Aryl-[1,2,3]-triazoles from Anilines via Telescoped Three-Step Diazotization, Azidodediazotization, and [3 + 2] Dipolar Cycloaddition Processes

 Department of Chemistry, York University, 4700 Keele Street, Toronto, Ontario M3J1P3, Canada
 GlaxoSmithKline Pharmaceuticals Inc., 709 Swedeland Road, P.O. Box 1539, UMW 2810, King of Prussia, Pennsylvania 19406, United States
§ Centre for Catalysis Research and Innovation (CCRI) and Department of Chemistry, University of Ottawa, Ottawa, Ontario K1N6N5, Canada
Org. Process Res. Dev., Article ASAP

Michael G. Organ
Professor of Chemistry, York University, Toronto, Canada
B. Sc. (Honours) in Biology (1986) from the University of Guelph; M. Sc. in Botany (1988) from the University of Guelph; Ph.D. in Chemistry (1992) from the University of Guelph.
Professional Career:
1992-1994 NSERC Post-Doctoral Fellow with Barry Trost at Stanford University; 1994-1997 Faculty member at IUPUI in Indianapolis; 1997-present Faculty member at York University in Toronto.
Awards and Honours:
Author Profile in Angewandte Chemie, November 2013; Appointed to the Editorial Board of Chemistry, A European Journal, November 2013; NSERC Accelerator Award, April 2013; Agilent Labs Fellow, October 2011; Japan Society for the Promotion of Science (JSPS) Fellow, May 2010; Naeja Pharmaceuticals Lecturer, University of Alberta, March 2008; Merck-Frosst Canadian Academic Development Program Fellow, December 2007; International Xerox Foundation Fellow, July 2007; E.T.S. Walton Visitor Award (Ireland), May 2002; 1999 Premier's Research Excellence Award.
Research Interests:
Synthetic efficiency, catalysis, flow chemistry, sustainable manufacturing.

Image result for Michael G. Organ

Department of Chemistry, York University
4700 Keele Street, Toronto, Ontario, Canada M3J 1P3
Phone: 416-736-5313. Facsimile: 416-736-5936. E-mail: organ@yorku.ca

Image result for Michael G. Organ


Sunday, 16 October 2016



Molecular Formula:C16H16N2O4
Molecular Weight:300.314 g/mol

521284-19-5; (R)-2-Hydroxy-N-(4-nitrophenethyl)-2-phenylacetamide; (R)-N-(4-nitrophenethyl)-2-hydroxy-2-phenylacetamide; (2r)-2-hydroxy-n-[2-(4-nitrophenyl)ethyl]-2-phenylacetamide; 

Abstract Image

Concise Synthesis of Key Intermediate of Mirabegron via a Mixed Anhydride Method

School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, University of Jinan, Jinan 250022, Shandong, P. R. China
Org. Process Res. Dev., Article ASAP
DOI: 10.1021/acs.oprd.6b00231
Publication Date (Web): October 13, 2016
Copyright © 2016 American Chemical Society
*E-mail: chm_zhanfx@ujn.edu.cn. Tel.: +8653182765841., *E-mail: chm_zhenggx@ujn.edu.cn.

Thursday, 13 October 2016

5 HMF, 5-(Hydroxymethyl)furfural

Critical influence of 5-hydroxymethylfurfural aging and decomposition on the utility of biomass conversion in organic synthesis
Angewandte Chemie, International Edition (2016), 55, (29), 8338-8342

str1 str2
5-HMF. 1H NMR (400 MHz, DMSO-d6) δ = 9.54 (s, 1H, C(O)H), 7.49 (d, J = 3.5 Hz, 1H, CHfuran), 6.60 (d, J = 3.5 Hz, 1H, CH-furan), 5.57 (t, J = 5.9 Hz, 1H, OH), 4.51 (d, J = 5.9 Hz, 2H, CH2OH). 13C{1H} NMR (101 MHz, DMSO-d6) δ = 177.9 (C(O)H), 162.2, 151.7 (C-furan), 124.4, 109.7 (CH-furan), 55.9 (CH2OH). Anal. calcd. For C6H6O3 (126.11): C 57.14, H 4.80; found: C 57.08, H 4.79.

Hydroxymethylfurfural (HMF), also 5-(Hydroxymethyl)furfural, is an organic compound derived from dehydration of certainsugars.[2][3][4] This yellow low-melting solid is highly water-soluble. The molecule consists of a furan ring, containing both aldehydeand alcohol functional groups. HMF has been identified in a wide variety of baked goods. HMF, which is derived from hexoses, is a potential "carbon-neutral" feedstock for fuels and chemicals.[5]

Production and reactions

Related to the production of furfural, HMF is produced from sugars. It arises via the dehydration of fructose.[6][7] Treatment of fructose with acids followed by liquid-liquid extraction into organic solvents such as methyl isobutyl ketone. The conversion is affected by various additives such as DMSO2-butanol, and polyvinyl pyrrolidone, which minimize the formation of side product. Ionic liquids facilitate the conversion of fructose to HMF.[8] When hexoses are hydrolyzed with hydrochloric acid5-chloromethylfurfural is produced instead of HMF.
New method for production of hydroxymethylfurfural from fructose
In the image above are displayed in a series of chemical equilibria: fructopyranose 1, fructofuranose 2, two intermediate stages ofdehydration (not isolated) 3,4 and finally HMF 5.
Chromous chloride catalyzes the direct conversion of both fructose (yielding 90%+) and glucose (yielding 70%+) into an HMF.[9]Cellulose can also be converted into HMF (yielding 55% at 96% purity), in a process that proceeds via the intermediacy of glucose and fructose.[10][11]
HMF can be converted to 2,5-dimethylfuran (DMF), a liquid that is a potential biofuel with a greater energy content than bioethanolOxidation of HMF gives 2,5-furandicarboxylic acid, which has been proposed as a replacement for terephthalic acid in the production of polyesters. Reduction gives 2,5-bis(hydroxymethyl)furan. Acid-catalysed hydrolysis converts HMF into gamma-valerolactone, with loss of formic acid.[12]

Occurrence in food

HMF is practically absent in fresh food, but it is naturally generated in sugar-containing food during heat-treatments like drying or cooking. Along with many other flavor- and color-related substances, HMF is formed in the Maillard reaction as well as during caramelization. In these foods it is also slowly generated during storage. Acid conditions favour generation of HMF.[13] HMF is a well known component of baked goods. Upon toasting bread, the amount increases from 14.8 (5 min.) to 2024.8 mg/kg (60 min).[3]
It is a good wine storage time−temperature marker,[14] especially in sweet wines such as Madeira[15] and those sweetened with grape concentrate arrope.[16]

As an unwanted component

Phallus indusiatusCooktown, Queensland, Australia. The fruiting body contains hydroxymethylfurfural
HMF can be found in low amounts in honey, fruit-juices and UHT-milk. Here, as well as in vinegars, jams, alcoholic products or biscuits HMF can be used as an indicator for excess heat-treatment. For instance, fresh honey contains less than 15 mg/kg—depending on pH-value and temperature and age,[17] and the codex alimentarius standard requires that honey have less than 40 mg/kg HMf to guarantee that the honey has not undergone heating during processing, except for tropical honeys which must be below 80 mg/kg.
Higher quantities of HMF are found naturally in coffee and dried fruit. Several types of roasted coffee contained between 300 – 2900 mg/kg HMF.[18] Dried plums were found to contain up to 2200 mg/kg HMF. In dark beer 13.3 mg/kg were found,[19] bakery-products contained between 4.1 – 151 mg/kg HMF.[20]
It can be found in glucose syrup.
HMF can form in high-fructose corn syrup (HFCS), levels around 20 mg/kg HMF were found, increasing during storage or heating.[17] This is a problem for American beekeepers because they use HFCS as a source of sugar when there are not enough nectar sources to feedhoneybees, and HMF is toxic to them. Adding bases such as soda ash or potash to neutralize the HFCS slows the formation of HMF.[17]
Depending on production-technology and storage, levels in food vary considerably. To evaluate the contribution of a food to HMF intake, its consumption-pattern has to be considered. Coffee is the food that has a very high relevance in terms of levels of HMF and quantities consumed.
HMF is a natural component in heated food but usually present in low concentrations. The daily intake of HMF may underlie high variations due to individual consumption-patterns. It has been estimated that in a western diet, in the order of magnitude of 5 – 10 mg of HMF are ingested per day from food.[13]
In former times, HMF was used in food for flavoring purposes, but in Europe this practice now is suspended. HMF is also found in cigarette smoke.[21]


A major metabolite in humans is 5-hydroxymethyl-2-furoic acid (HMFA), which is excreted in urine. HMF can also be metabolized to 5-sulfoxymethylfurfural (SMF), which is highly reactive and can form adducts with DNA or proteins. In vitro tests and studies on rats suggest potential toxicity and carcinogenicity of HMF.[citation needed] In humans, no correlation between intakes of HMF and disease is known.
HMF has been found to bind specifically with intracellular sickle hemoglobin (HbS). Preliminary in vivo studies using transgenic sickle mice showed that orally administered 5HMF inhibits the formation of sickled cells in the blood.[22] Under the development code Aes-103, HMF has been considered for the treatment of sickle cell disease.[23]


Today, HPLC with UV-detection is the reference-method (e.g. DIN 10751-3). Classic methods for the quantification of HMF in food use photometry. The method according to White is a differential UV-photometry with and without sodium bisulphite-reduction of HMF (AOAC 980.23). Winkler photometric method is a colour-reaction using p-toluidineand barbituric acid (DIN 10751-1). Photometric test may be unspecific as they may detect also related substances, leading to higher results than HPLC-measurements. Test-kits for rapid analyses are also available (e.g. Refelctoquant HMF, Merck KGaA).[24][25]


This organic compound was first prepared from inulin using oxalic acid.[26] It was examined by French chemist Louis Maillard in 1912 in studies on non-enzymatic reactions ofglucose. Its conversion to myriad organic compounds, e.g., solvents, polymer precursors, and biofuels has been regularly studied since the 1950s. In the 1980s, the role of acids in its formation was elucidated, especially means of avoiding the formation of humins.[3]


HMF is an intermediate in the titration of hexoses in the Molisch's test. In the related Bial's test for pentoses, the hydroxymethylfurfural from hexoses may give a muddy-brown or gray solution, but this is easily distinguishable from the green color of pentoses.
AMF,[27] acetoxymethyl furfural, is also bio-derived green platform chemicals as an alternative to HMF.


  1. Jump up^ The Determination of HMF in Honey with an Evolution Array UV-Visible Spectrophotometer. Nicole Kreuziger Keppy and Michael W. Allen, Ph.D., Application note 51864, Thermo Fisher Scientific, Madison, WI, USA (article)
  2. Jump up^ Malgorzata E. Zakrzewska, Ewa Bogel-Lukasik, Rafal Bogel-Lukasik "Ionic Liquid-Mediated Formation of 5-Hydroxymethylfurfurals-A Promising Biomass-Derived Building Block" Chem. Rev., 2011, volume 111, 397. doi:10.1021/cr100171a
  3. Jump up to:a b c Andreia A. Rosatella, Svilen P. Simeonov, Raquel F. M. Frade, Carlos A. M. Afonso "Critical Review 5-Hydroxymethylfurfural (HMF) as a building block platform: Biological Properties, Synthesis and Synthetic Applications" Green Chem., 2011, volume 13, 754.doi:10.1039/c0gc00401d
  4. Jump up^ Hydroxymethylfurfural, A Versatile Platform Chemical Made from Renewable ResourcesRobert-Jan van Putten, Jan C. van der Waal, Ed de Jong, Carolus B. Rasrendra, Hero J. Heeres, and Johannes G. de Vries Chemical Reviews 2013, vol. 113, pp. 1499–1597.doi:10.1021/cr300182k
  5. Jump up^ Huber, George W.; Iborra, Sara; Corma, Avelino (2006). "Synthesis of Transportation Fuels from Biomass: Chemistry, Catalysts, and Engineering". Chem. Rev. 106 (9): 4044–98. doi:10.1021/cr068360dPMID 16967928.MIT Technology Review
  6. Jump up^ Yuriy Román-Leshkov; Juben N. Chheda; James A. Dumesic (2006). "Phase Modifiers Promote Efficient Production of Hydroxymethylfurfural from Fructose". Science312 (5782): 1933–1937. doi:10.1126/science.1126337PMID 16809536.
  7. Jump up^ Synthesis of 5-(Hydroxymethyl)furfural (HMF) Svilen P. Simeonov, Jaime A. S. Coelho and Carlos A. M. Afonso Org. Synth. 2016, 93, 29 doi:10.15227/orgsyn.093.0029
  8. Jump up^ Ståhlberg, T.; Fu, W.; Woodley, J. M.; Riisager, A. "Synthesis of 5-(Hydroxymethyl)furfural in Ionic Liquids: Paving the Way to Renewable Chemicals" ChemSusChem. 2011, Volume 4, pages 451–458. doi:10.1002/cssc.201000374
  9. Jump up^ Haibo Zhao; Johnathan E. Holladay; Heather Brown; Z. Conrad Zhang (2007). "Metal Chlorides in Ionic Liquid Solvents Convert Sugars to 5-Hydroxymethylfurfural". Science.316 (5782): 1597–1600. doi:10.1126/science.1141199PMID 17569858.
  10. Jump up^ Su, Yu; Brown, Heather M.; Huang, Xiwen; Zhou, Xiao-Dong; Amonette, James E.; Zhang, Z. Conrad (2009). "Single-step conversion of cellulose to 5-hydroxymethylfurfural (HMF), a versatile platform chemical". Applied Catalysis A: General361: 117.doi:10.1016/j.apcata.2009.04.002.
  11. Jump up^ A. A. Rosatella, S. P. Simeonov, R. F. M. Frade and C. A. M. Afonso, "5-Hydroxymethylfurfural (HMF) as a building block platform: Biological properties, synthesis and synthetic applications", Green Chemistry 2011, vol. 13, 754-793.doi:10.1039/c0gc00401d
  12. Jump up^ van Putten, R.-J., van der Waal, J. C., de Jong, E., Rasrendra, C. B., Heeres, H. J.,de Vries, J. G., "Hydroxymethylfurfural, A Versatile Platform Chemical Made from Renewable Resources", Chem. Rev. 2013, 113, 1499.
  13. Jump up to:a b Arribas-Lorenzo, G; Morales, FJ (2010). "Estimation of dietary intake of 5-hydroxymethylfurfural and related substances from coffee to Spanish population". Food and Chemical Toxicology48 (2): 644–9. doi:10.1016/j.fct.2009.11.046.PMID 20005914.
  14. Jump up^ Kinetics of Browning, Phenolics, and 5-Hydroxymethylfurfural in Commercial Sparkling Wines. A. Serra-Cayuela, M. Jourdes, M. Riu-Aumatell, S. Buxaderas, P.-L. Teissedre and E. López-Tamames, J. Agric. Food Chem., 2014, volume 62, issue 5, pages 1159–1166,doi:10.1021/jf403281y
  15. Jump up^ Evolution of 5-hydroxymethylfurfural (HMF) and furfural (F) in fortified wines submitted to overheating conditions. V. Pereira, F.M. Albuquerque, A.C. Ferreira, J. Cacho and J.C. Marques, Food Research International, Volume 44, Issue 1, January 2011, Pages 71–76,doi:10.1016/j.foodres.2010.11.011
  16. Jump up^ Hydroxymethylfurfural in California wines. Maynard A. Amerine, Journal of Food Science, May 1948, Volume 13, Issue 3, pages 264–269, doi:10.1111/j.1365-2621.1948.tb16621.x
  17. Jump up to:a b c Ruiz-Matute, AI; Weiss, M; Sammataro, D; Finely, J; Sanz, ML (2010). "Carbohydrate composition of high-fructose corn syrups (HFCS) used for bee feeding: effect on honey composition". Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry58 (12): 7317–22. doi:10.1021/jf100758xPMID 20491475.
  18. Jump up^ Murkovic, M; Pichler, N (2006). "Analysis of 5-hydroxymethylfurfual in coffee, dried fruits and urine". Molecular Nutrition & Food Research50 (9): 842–6.doi:10.1002/mnfr.200500262PMID 16917810.
  19. Jump up^ Husøy, T; Haugen, M; Murkovic, M; Jöbstl, D; Stølen, LH; Bjellaas, T; Rønningborg, C; Glatt, H; Alexander, J (2008). "Dietary exposure to 5-hydroxymethylfurfural from Norwegian food and correlations with urine metabolites of short-term exposure". Food and Chemical Toxicology46 (12): 3697–702. doi:10.1016/j.fct.2008.09.048PMID 18929614.
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  23. Jump up^ "Aes-103 Drug Development". AesRx.
  24. Jump up^ Schultheiss, J.; Jensen, D.; Galensa, R. (2000). "Determination of aldehydes in food by high-performance liquid chromatography with biosensor coupling and micromembrane suppressors". Journal of Chromatography A880: 233. doi:10.1016/S0021-9673(99)01086-9.
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  26. Jump up^ G. Dull, Chemiker Zeitung, 1895, 216.
  27. Jump up^ Kang, Eun-Sil; Hong, Yeon-Woo; Chae, Da Won; Kim, Bora; Kim, Baekjin; Kim, Yong Jin; Cho, Jin Ku; Kim, Young Gyu (13 April 2015). "From Lignocellulosic Biomass to Furans via 5-Acetoxymethylfurfural as an Alternative to 5-Hydroxymethylfurfural"ChemSusChem8(7): 1179–1188. doi:10.1002/cssc.2

Structural formula of hydroxymethylfurfural
Space-filling model of the hydroxymethylfurfural molecule
IUPAC name
67-47-0 Yes
ChEBICHEBI:412516 Yes
ChEMBLChEMBL185885 Yes
ChemSpider207215 Yes
ECHA InfoCard100.000.595
Jmol 3D modelInteractive image
KEGGC11101 Yes
Molar mass126.11 g/mol
Density1.29 g/cm3
Melting point30 to 34 °C (86 to 93 °F; 303 to 307 K)
Boiling point114 to 116 °C (237 to 241 °F; 387 to 389 K) (1 mbar)
UV-vis (λmax)282 nm[1]
Related compounds
Related furan-2-carbaldehydes

Begur, IndiaKarnataka,

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Begur is a municipality in the Indian state of Karnataka. It is in the state capital Bangalore. It is off Bangalore-Hosur highway. It is said to have been a prominent place during the rule of the Western Ganga Dynasty and later the Chola Kingdom. Wikipedia
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