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Tuesday, 6 December 2016

L-Perfluoro-tert-butyl tyrosine




1H NMR (400 MHz, CD3OD) δ 7.35-7.32 (dd, J = 5.5 Hz, 5.2 Hz, 2H), 7.11-7.06
(dd, J = 8.7 Hz, 8.7 Hz, 2H), 3.78-3.75 (dd, J = 6.4 Hz, 6.1 Hz, 1H), 3.28-3.27 (d, J = 4.4 Hz,
1H), 3.06-3.00 (m, 1H).


13C NMR (150.8 MHz, CD3OD) δ 169.7, 163.7, 161.2, 131.1, 131.0,
130.8, 130.2, 123.5, 115.5, 115.3, 53.7, 35.0.


19F NMR (376.3 MHz, CD3OD) δ -70.27.

 HRMS
(HESI) m/z: [M]+ calcd for C13H11F9NO3 400.05998, found 400.05897.






1H NMR predict





13 C NMR PREDICT





Synthesis of Perfluoro-tert-butyl Tyrosine, for Application in 19F NMR, via a Diazonium-Coupling Reaction

Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, University of Delaware, Newark, Delaware 19716, United States
Org. Lett., Article ASAP
DOI: 10.1021/acs.orglett.6b02858
Publication Date (Web): December 6, 2016
Copyright © 2016 American Chemical Society
*E-mail: zondlo@udel.edu.

Abstract

Abstract Image
A practical synthesis of the novel highly fluorinated amino acid Fmoc-perfluoro-tert-butyl tyrosine was developed. The sequence proceeds in two steps from commercially available Fmoc-4-NH2-phenylalanine via diazotization followed by diazonium coupling reaction with perfluoro-tert-butanol. In peptides, perfluoro-tert-butyl tyrosine was detected in 30 s by NMR spectroscopy at 500 nM peptide concentration due to nine chemically equivalent fluorines that are a sharp singlet by 19F NMR. Perfluoro-tert-butyl ether has an estimated σp Hammett substituent constant of +0.30.

//////////

Monday, 5 December 2016

Lumefantrine

Image result for lumefantrine synthesis
lumefantrine
2-(dibutylamino)-1-[(9Z)-2,7-dichloro-9-[(4-chlorophenyl)methylidene]-9H-fluoren-4-yl]ethan-1-ol
(±)-2,7-Dichloro-9-((Z)-p-chlorobenzylidene)-α-((dibutylamino)methyl)fluorene-4-methanol
2-Dibutylamino-1-[2,7-dichloro-9-(4-chloro-benzylidene)-9H-fluoren-4-yl]-ethanol
2-Dibutylamino-1-{2,7-dichloro-9-[1-(4-chloro-phenyl)-meth-(Z)-ylidene]-9H-fluoren-4-yl}-ethanol
Benflumetol
dl-Benflumelol
UNII F38R0JR742
CAS number 82186-77-4
Weight Average: 528.94
Monoisotopic: 527.154947772
Chemical Formula C30H32Cl3NO
Lumefantrine (or benflumetol) is an antimalarial drug. It is only used in combination with artemether. The term "co-artemether" is sometimes used to describe this combination.[1] Lumefantrine has a much longer half-life compared to artemether and so is therefore thought to clear any residual parasites that remain after combination treatment.[2]
Lumefantrine, along with pyronaridine and naphtoquine, were synthesized in course of the Project 523 antimalaria drug research initiated in 1967; these compounds are all used in combination antimalaria therapies.[3][4][5]
Image result for lumefantrine synthesis
Lumefantrine is an antimalarial drug chemically known as 2-(dibutylamino)-1-[(9Z)-2, 7-dichloro-9-(4- chlorobenzylidene)-9H-floren-4-yl] ethanol, which is used in the prevention and treatment of Malaria in worm blooded animals. Lumefantrine is using the combination of β-Artemether in the treatment of Malaria
http://derpharmachemica.com/vol8-iss3/DPC-2016-8-3-91-100.pdf
REFERENCES
[1] Ulrich Beutler, C Peter.; Fuenfschilling.; and Andreas, Steinkemper.; Novartis Pharma AG; Chemical and Analytical Development: CH-4002 Basel, Switzerland, Organic Process Research & Development 2007, 11, 341- 345.
[2] Boehm, M. Fuenfschilling.; Krieger, P. C.; Kuesters, E. M.; Struber, F.; Org. Process Res. DeV. 2007, 11, 336- 340.
[3] (a) Rao, D. R.; Kankan, R. N.; Phull, M. S.; Patent Application CN 1009-3724 20060424, 2005. (b) Deng, R.; Zhong, J.; Zhao, D.; Wang, J.; Yaoxue, X. 2000, 35 (1), 22. (c) Allmendinger, Th.; Wernsdorfer, W. H. PCT WO 99/67197.
[4] Perrumattam, J.; Shao, Ch.; Confer, W. L. Synthesis 1994, 1181.
[5] Fuenfschilling, P. C.; Hoehn P.; Mutz J.-P. Organic Process Res. Dev. 2007, 11, 13.
[6] Di Nunno, L.; Scilimati, A. Tetrahedron 1988, 44, 3639.
[7] Pharmacopeial Forum, Vol. 36(2) [Mar.-Apr. 2010]
Preparation of 2-(dibutylamino)-1-[(9Z)-2, 7-dichloro-9-(4-chlorobenzylidene)-9H-floren-4-yl] ethanol (Lumefantrine) 1.
To a stirred solution of NaOH (1.97 g 0.0492 mol) in methanol (100 ml) there was added 1-(2, 7- dichloro-9 H-fluren-4-yl)-2-(dibutyl amino) ethanol (10 g, 0.0246 mol) and para chloro benzaldehyde (5.24 g 0.0372). The suspension obtained was stirred at reflux temperature till the absence of starting material by TLC. After confirming the product formation reaction mixture was cooled to room temperature and further stirred at same temperature for overnight. The precipitated solids were filtered and washed with methanol and dried under vacuum at 50°C to get desired compound.  (Purity by HPLC: 99%).
IR (cm-1): 3408, 3092, 2953, 2928, 2870, 2840, 1634, 1589, 1487, 1465, 1443, 1400, 1365, 1308, 1268, 1241, 1207, 1173, 1156, 1085, 1071, 1014, 980, 933, 874, 839, 815, 806, 770;
1H NMR (CDCl3, δ ppm): 7.75 (d, 1H, CH, J 1.5 Hz), 7.68 (d, 1H, CH, J 1.5 Hz), 7.60-7.63 (m, 1H, CH), 7.32-7.35 (dd, 1H, CH, J 1.7,8.3 Hz), 7.45-7.50 (m, 1H, CH), 5.35-5.39 (dd, 1H, CH, J 3.0,9.9 Hz), 2.41-2.74 (m, 1H, CH2Ha), 2.86-2.92 (m, 1H, CH2Hb), 2.41-2.74 (m, 4H, CH2), 1.25-1.56 (m, 8H, CH2), 0.97 (t, 1H, CH, J 7.2 Hz), 7.60-7.63 (m, 1H, CH), 7.45-7.50 (m, 4H, CH), 4.54 (broad, 1H, OH),
13C NMR (CDCl3, δ ppm): 138.2, 141.5, 120.6, 133.2, 126.3, 135.0, 135.0, 136.4, 123.9, 128.3, 132.8, 123.0, 139.8, 65.5, 60.0, 53.5, 29.1, 20.6, 14.0, 127.6, 134.7, 130.5, 129.1, 133.2;
MS: m/z: 528 [M+H]+ ; Analysis calcd. for C30H32Cl3NO: C, 68.12; H, 6.10; N, 2.65% Found: C, 68.38; H, 6.14; N, 2.63 %.

CLIP
str0
One-dimensional 1H NMR spectrum of B) a lumefantrine standard,
A CLIP
Image result for lumefantrine synthesis
CLIP

A simple and precise method for quantitative analysis of lumefantrine ...

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov › NCBI › Literature › PubMed Central (PMC)
by P Hamrapurkar - ‎2010 - ‎Cited by 2 - ‎Related articles
[2–4] Thus, today lumefantrine is a drug of choice in antimalarial treatment against P. .... The NMRspectra observed triplet at 0.943-0.989 (methyl protons of alkyl ...
str0
The spectroscopic techniques were used to confirm the identity of lumefantrine. The IR spectra, showed strong absorption band at 3404.67 cm-1 (OH), 2953.28 cm-1 (aliphatic and aromatic CH), 1757.31 cm-1 (-C=C-), 933 cm-1 (alkanes) and 696.37-373.22 cm-1 (Cl). Thus, IR spectra confirmed the presence of these functional groups in the structure of lumefantrine.
The mass spectrum showed a sharp molecular ion peak at 528.0 m/z in Q1 MS (m/z, parent ion) parameter at negative polarity confirming the molecular weight of lumefantrine.
The NMR spectra observed triplet at 0.943-0.989 (methyl protons of alkyl chain); a multiplet at 1.372-1.498 (methylene protons of alkyl chains); a multiplet at 2.449-2.909 (methylene protons of alkyl chain); broad singlet at 4.573 (OH proton); and multiplet at 7.314-7.733 (aromatic proton), thus confirming identity of lumefantrine.
 IH NMR PREDICT

 str0

str1

13C NMR PREDICT
str0

str1
Image result for lumefantrine synthesis
Image result for lumefantrine synthesis

References

  1. Jump up^ Toovey S, Jamieson A, Nettleton G (2003). "Successful co-artemether (artemether-lumefantrine) clearance of falciparum malaria in a patient with severe cholera in Mozambique". Travel medicine and infectious disease1 (3): 177–9. doi:10.1016/j.tmaid.2003.09.002PMID 17291911.
  2. Jump up^ White, Nicholas J.; van Vugt, Michele; Ezzet, Farkad (1999). "Clinical Pharmacokinetics and Pharmacodynamics of Artemether-Lumefantrine". Clinical Pharmacokinetics37 (2): 105–125. doi:10.2165/00003088-199937020-00002ISSN 0312-5963.
  3. Jump up^ Cui, Liwang; Su, Xin-zhuan (2009). "Discovery, mechanisms of action and combination therapy of artemisinin"Expert Review of Anti-infective Therapy7 (8): 999–1013. doi:10.1586/eri.09.68PMC 2778258Freely accessiblePMID 19803708.
  4. Jump up^ http://aac.asm.org/content/56/5/2465.full
  5. Jump up^ Laman, M; Moore, BR; Benjamin, JM; Yadi, G; Bona, C; Warrel, J; Kattenberg, JH; Koleala, T; Manning, L; Kasian, B; Robinson, LJ; Sambale, N; Lorry, L; Karl, S; Davis, WA; Rosanas-Urgell, A; Mueller, I; Siba, PM; Betuela, I; Davis, TM (2014). "Artemisinin-naphthoquine versus artemether-lumefantrine for uncomplicated malaria in Papua New Guinean children: an open-label randomized trial"PLoS Med11: e1001773. doi:10.1371/journal.pmed.1001773PMC 4280121Freely accessiblePMID 25549086.
Lumefantrine
Lumefantrine.svg
Clinical data
AHFS/Drugs.comInternational Drug Names
MedlinePlusa609024
Routes of
administration
Oral
ATC codeP01BF01 (WHO) (combination with artemether)
Legal status
Legal status
  • US: C
Identifiers
CAS Number82186-77-4 
PubChem (CID)6437380
DrugBankDB06708 Yes
ChemSpider4941944 Yes
UNIIF38R0JR742 Yes
KEGGD03821 Yes
ChEBICHEBI:156095 Yes
ChEMBLCHEMBL38827 Yes
Chemical and physical data
FormulaC30H32Cl3NO
Molar mass528.939 g/mol
3D model (Jmol)Interactive image
Title: Lumefantrine
CAS Registry Number: 82186-77-4
CAS Name: (9Z)-2,7-Dichloro-9-[(4-chlorophenyl)methylene]-a-[(dibutylamino)methyl]-9H-fluorene-4-methanol
Additional Names: 2-dibutylamino-1-[2,7-dichloro-9-(4-chlorobenzylidene)-9,11-fluoren-4-yl]ethanol; dl-benflumelol; benflumetol; BFL
Manufacturers' Codes: CPG-56695
Molecular Formula: C30H32Cl3NO
Molecular Weight: 528.94
Percent Composition: C 68.12%, H 6.10%, Cl 20.11%, N 2.65%, O 3.02%
Literature References: Racemic aryl alcohol originally synthesized in the 1970's by the Academy of Military Medical Sciences in Beijing, China. Inhibits hemozoin formation. Prepn: R. Deng et al., CN 1042535 (1990 to Acad. Military Med. Sci., Microbiol. & Epidemic Dis. Instit.); C.A. 114, 6046 (1991). LC determn in plasma: A. Annerberg et al., J. Chromatogr. B 822, 330 (2005). In vitro activity against Plasmodium falciparum: B. Pradines et al., Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. 43, 418 (1999).
Properties: Odorless, yellow powder. Poorly sol in water, oil, and most organic solvents. Sol in unsaturated fatty acids.
 
Derivative Type: Co-artemether
CAS Registry Number: 141204-94-6
Manufacturers' Codes: CPG-56697
Trademarks: Coartem (Novartis); Riamet (Novartis)
Literature References: Fixed 6:1 mixture with artemether, q.v. Clinical pharmacokinetics and bioavailability: F. Ezzet et al., Br. J. Clin. Pharmacol. 46, 553 (1998). Clinical trial in children against P. falciparum malaria: C. Hatz et al., Trop. Med. Int. Health 3, 498 (1998); in adults: S. Looareesuwan et al., Am. J. Trop. Med. Hyg. 60, 238 (1999). Review of comparative clinical trials in malaria: A. A. Omari et al., Trop. Med. Int. Health 9, 192-199 (2004).
 
Therap-Cat: Antimalarial.
Keywords: Antimalarial.
///////////lumefantrine
CCCCN(CCCC)CC(O)C1=C2C(=CC(Cl)=C1)\C(=C/C1=CC=C(Cl)C=C1)C1=C2C=CC(Cl)=C1

Wednesday, 30 November 2016

1-(2-Methoxyphenoxy)-2,3-epoxypropane



Abstract Image

An efficient process for the preparation of 1-(2-methoxyphenoxy)-2,3-epoxypropane, a key intermediate for the synthesis of ranolazine is described.

http://pubs.acs.org/doi/suppl/10.1021/op300056k

str0


Preparation of 1-(2-Methoxyphenoxy)-2,3-epoxypropane 4.
To a stirring solution of 2-methoxy phenol 2 (10 kg, 80.55 mol) and water (40 L) at about 30 °C was added sodium hydroxide (1.61 kg, 40.25 mol) and water (10 L). After stirring for 30−45 min, epichlorohydrin 3 (22.35 kg, 241.62 mol) was added and stirred for 10−12 h at 25−35 °C. Layers were separated, and water (40 L) was added to the organic layer (bottom layer) containing product. Sodium hydroxide solution (3.22 kg, 80.5 mol) and water (10 L) were added at 27 °C and stirred for 5−6 h at 27 °C.
The bottom product layer was separated and washed with sodium hydroxide solution (3.0 kg 75 mol) and water (30 L). Excess epichlorohydrin (3) was recovered by distillation of the product layer at below 90 °C under vacuum (650−700 mmHg) to give 13.65 kg (94%) of title compound with 98.3% purity by HPLC, 0.2% of 2- methoxy phenol 2, 0.1% of epichlorohydrin 3, 0.1% of chlorohydrin 11, 0.3% of dimer 12 and 0.3% of dihydroxy 13.

1 H NMR (400 MHz, CDCl3, δ) 6.8−7.0 (m, 4H), 4.3 (dd, J = 5.6 Hz, 5.4 Hz, 1H), 3.8 (dd, J = 5.6 Hz, 5.3 Hz, 1H), 3.7 (s, 3H), 3.2−3.4 (m, 1H), 2.8 (dd, J = 5.6 Hz, 5.4 Hz, 1H), 2.7 (dd, J = 5.6 Hz, 5.3 Hz, 1H);

IR (KBr, cm−1 ) 2935 (C−H, aliphatic), 1594 and 1509 (CC, aromatic), 1258 and 1231 (C−O−C, aralkyl ether), 1125 and 1025 (C−O−C, epoxide);

MS (m/z) 181 (M+ + H).



Compound Details

Properties
MWt180.2
MFC10H12O3

CAS 2210-74-4
Glycidyl 2-methoxyphenyl ether


Guaiacol glycidyl ether









1H NMR PREDICT

13C NMR PREDICT




COSY PREDICT







logo
CREDIT..........http://www.molbase.com/en/synthesis_2210-74-4-moldata-95563.html




str0
RakeshwarBandichhor
DR REDDYS LABORATORIES

An Efficient Synthesis of 1-(2-Methoxyphenoxy)-2,3-epoxypropane: Key Intermediate of β-Adrenoblockers

 Innovation Plaza, IPD, R&D, Dr. Reddy’s Laboratories Ltd., Survey Nos. 42, 45,46, and 54, Bachupally, Qutubullapur – 500073, Andhra Pradesh, India
 Institute of Science and Technology, Center for Environmental Science, JNT University, Kukatpally, Hyderabad – 500 072, Andhra Pradesh, India
Org. Process Res. Dev.201216 (10), pp 1660–1664
DOI: 10.1021/op300056k
Publication Date (Web): September 14, 2012
Copyright © 2012 American Chemical Society
*Telephone: +91 4044346000. Fax: +91 4044346285. E-mail: rakeshwarb@drreddys.com.

////////////////1-(2-Methoxyphenoxy)-2,3-epoxypropane,  β-Adrenoblockers, ranolazine

COc2ccccc2OCC1CO1


OTHER COMPD
Glycidyl 2-methylphenyl ether technical grade, 90%


Tuesday, 29 November 2016

ADRAFINIL






1H NMR PREDICT


13C NMR PREDICT





Adrafinil.svg
ADRAFINIL
2-((diphenylmethyl)sulfinyl)-acetohydroxamicaci;2-((diphenylmethyl)sulfinyl)-n-hydroxy-acetamid;2-((diphenylmethyl)sulfinyl)-n-hydroxyacetamide;2-(benzhydrylsulfinyl)acetohydroxamicacid;ADRAFINIL;2-[(DIPHENYLMETHYL)SULFINYL]ACETOHYDROXAMIC ACID;CRL 40028;OLMIFON
  • CAS 63547-13-7
  • MF:C15H15NO3S
  • MW:289.35
  • EINECS:264-303-1

WATCH THIS POST AS DETAILS LIKE SYNTHESIS ARE UPDATED.............

Adrafinil is touted mainly for its stimulant properties and ability to provide alertness and wakefulness.
  • Stay up late/stay awake during normal sleeping hours: Adrafinil may be helpful for night workers who need a kick-start adapting their body’s natural circadian rhythm of wakefulness in the daytime and sleepiness in the evening to their job needs. This can also make it helpful for periodic late-night study sessions. Adrafinil is best taken in the afternoon or evening for nighttime wakefulness.
  • Boost energy, alertness, and focus during the day time: Adrafinil can also be used as an energy-boost during waking hours.
  • CONTACT SKYPE CATHERINESSPC WICKR
Adrafinil (INN) (brand name Olmifon)[2] is a discontinued wakefulness-promoting agent (or eugeroic) that was formerly used inFrance to promote vigilance (alertness), attentionwakefulnessmood, and other parameters, particularly in the elderly.[3][4] It was also used off-label by individuals who wished to avoid fatigue, such as night workers or others who needed to stay awake and alert for long periods of time. Additionally, "adrafinil is known to a larger nonscientific audience, where it is considered to be a nootropic agent."[3] Adrafinil is a prodrug; it is primarily metabolized in vivo to modafinil, resulting in very similar pharmacological effects.[3] Unlike modafinil, however, it takes time for the metabolite to accumulate to active levels in the bloodstream. Effects usually are apparent within 45–60 minutes when taken orally on an empty stomach. Adrafinil was marketed in France under the trade name Olmifon[2] until September 2011 when it was voluntarily discontinued.[4]

Pharmacology

Pharmacodynamics

Because α1-adrenergic receptor antagonists were found to block effects of adrafinil and modafinil in animals, "most investigators assume[d] that adrafinil and modafinil both serve as α1-adrenergic receptor agonists."[3] However, adrafinil and modafinil have not been found to bind to the α1-adrenergic receptor and they lack peripheral sympathomimetic side effects associated with activation of this receptor;[5] hence, the evidence in support of this hypothesis is weak, and other mechanisms are probable.[3] Modafinil was subsequently screened at a variety of targets in 2009 and was found to act as a weak, atypical blocker of the dopamine transporter(and hence as a dopamine reuptake inhibitor), and this action may explain some or all of its pharmacological effects.[6][7][8] Relative to adrafinil, modafinil possesses greater specificity in its action, lacking or having a reduced incidence of many of the common side effects of the former (including stomach painskin irritationanxiety, and elevated liver enzymes with prolonged use).[9][10][11] There is a case report of two patients that adrafinil may increase interest in sex.[3] A case report of adrafinil-induced orofacial dyskinesia exists.[12][13] Reports of this side effect also exist for modafinil.[12]

Pharmacokinetics

In addition to modafinil, adrafinil also produces modafinil acid (CRL-40467) and modafinil sulfone (CRL-41056) as metabolites, which form from metabolic modification of modafinil.

History

Adrafinil was discovered in 1974 by two chemists working for the French pharmaceutical company Laboratoires Lafon who were screening compounds in search of analgesics.[14] Pharmacological studies of adrafinil instead revealed psychostimulant-like effects such as hyperactivity and wakefulness in animals.[14] The substance was first tested in humans, specifically for the treatment of narcolepsy, in 1977–1978.[14] Introduced by Lafon (now Cephalon), it reached the market in France in 1984,[4] and for the treatment of narcolepsy in 1985.[14][15] In 1976, two years after the discovery of adrafinil, modafinil, its active metabolite, was discovered.[14] Modafinil appeared to be more potent than adrafinil in animal studies, and was selected for further clinical development, with both adrafinil and modafinil eventually reaching the market.[14] Modafinil was first approved in France in 1994, and then in the United States in 1998.[15] Lafon was acquired by Cephalon in 2001.[16] As of September 2011, Cephalon has discontinued Olmifon, its adrafinil product, while modafinil continues to be marketed.[4]

Society and culture

Regulation

Athletic doping

Adrafinil and its active metabolite modafinil were added to the list of substances prohibited for athletic competition according to World Anti-Doping Agency in 2004.[17]

New Zealand

In 2005 a Medical Classification Committee in New Zealand recommended to MEDSAFE NZ that adrafinil be classified as a prescription medicine due to risks of it being used as a party drug. At that time adrafinil was not scheduled in New Zealand.[18]

Research

In a clinical trial with clomipramine and placebo as active comparators, adrafinil showed efficacy in the treatment of depression.[3] In contrast to clomipramine however, adrafinil was well-tolerated, and showed greater improvement in psychomotor retardation in comparison.[3] As such, "further investigations of the antidepressive effects of adrafinil are warranted."[3]
/////////////
SYNTHESIS
Adrafinil (CAS NO.63547-13-7) was discovered in the late 1970s by scientists working with the French pharmaceutical company Group Lafon. First offered in France in 1986 as an experimental treatment for narcolepsy, Lafon later developed modafinil, the primary metabolite of adrafinil. Modafinil possesses greater selective alpha-1 adrenergic activity than adrafinil without the side effects of stomach pain, skin irritations, feelings of tension, and increases in liver enzyme levels.
It is important to monitor the liver of an individual using adrafinil. It can cause liver damage in some instances.
The Adrafinil with CAS registry number of 63547-13-7 is also known as 2-[(Diphenylmethyl)sulfinyl]-N-hydroxyacetamide. The IUPAC name is 2-Benzhydrylsulfinyl-N-hydroxyacetamide. It belongs to product categories of Aromatics Compounds; Aromatics; Intermediates & Fine Chemicals; Pharmaceuticals; Sulfur & Selenium Compounds. This chemical is a light pink solid and its EINECS registry number is 264-303-1. In addition, the formula is C15H15NO3S and the molecular weight is 289.35. This chemical is harmful if swallowed.
Physical properties about Adrafinil are: (1)ACD/LogP: 1.596; (2)ACD/LogD (pH 5.5): 1.60; (3)ACD/LogD (pH 7.4): 1.53; (4)ACD/BCF (pH 5.5): 9.60; (5)ACD/BCF (pH 7.4): 8.34; (6)ACD/KOC (pH 5.5): 175.52; (7)ACD/KOC (pH 7.4): 152.63; (8)#H bond acceptors: 4; (9)#H bond donors: 2; (10)#Freely Rotating Bonds: 6; (11)Index of Refraction: 1.653; (12)Molar Refractivity: 78.858 cm3; (13)Molar Volume: 215.542 cm3; (14)Polarizability: 31.262 10-24cm3; (15)Surface Tension: 67.25 dyne/cm; (16)Density: 1.342 g/cm3
Preparation of Adrafinil: it is prepared by reaction of diphenyl methyl bromide with thiourea. This reaction needs reagent NaOH. After reacting with chloroacetic acid, hydrochloric acid amine and hydrogen peroxide, the product is obtained. The yield is about 73%.
Adrafinil is prepared by reaction of diphenyl methyl bromide with thiourea.
Uses of Adrafinil: it is used as non-amphetamine-type psychostimulant and can wake up and raise awareness. For the elderly arousal disorder and depressive symptoms in symptomatic treatment.
Image result for ADRAFINIL

Image result for ADRAFINIL SYNTHESIS

Benzhydrylsulphinyl-acetohydroxamic Acid (Adrafinil)1

Diphenylmethanethiol
15.2 g (0.2 mol) of thiourea and 150 ml of demineralized water are introduced into a 500 ml three-neck flask equipped with a central mechanical stirrer, and with a dropping funnel and a condenser on the (respective) side-necks.The temperature of the reaction mixture is brought to 50°and 49.4g (0.2 mol) of bromodiphenyl- methane are added all at once whilst continuing the heating. After refluxing for about 5 minutes, the solution, which has become limpid, is cooled to 20°C and 200 ml of 2.5 N NaOH are then added dropwise whilst maintaining the said temperature. The temperature is then again kept at the reflex for 30 minutes after which, when the mixture has returned to ordinary temperature (15-25°C), the aqueous solution is acidified with 45 ml of concentrated hydrochloric acid. The supernatant oil is extracted with 250 ml of diethyl ether and the organic phase is washed with 4x80 ml of water and then dried over magnesium sulphate. 39 g of crude diphenylmethane-thiol are thus obtained. Yield 97.5%.
Benzhydryl-thioacetic acid
10 g (0.05 mol) of diphenylmethane-thiol and 2g (0.05 mol) of NaOH dissolved in 60 ml of demineralised water are introduced successively into a 250 ml flask equipped with a magnetic stirrer and a reflux condenser. The reactants are left in contact for 10 minutes whilst stirring, and a solution consisting of 7g (0.075 mol) of chloroacetic acid, 3g (0.075 mol) of NaOH pellets and 60 ml of demineralized water is then added all at once. The aqueous solution is gently warmed to about 50°C for 15 minutes, washed with 50 ml of ether, decanted and acidified with concentrated hydrochloric acid. after filtration, 10.2g of benzhydryl-thioacetic acid are thus obtained. Melting point 129-130°C. Yield 79%.
Ethyl benzhydryl-thioacetate
The following reaction mixture is heated under reflux for 7 hours: 10.2 g (0.0395 mol) of benzhydryl-thioacetic acid, 100 ml of anhydrous ethanol and 2 ml of sulphuric acid. When heating has been completed, the ethanol isevaporated in vacuo; the oily residue is taken up in 100 ml of ethyl ether and the organic solution is then washed with water, with an aqueous sodium carbonate solution and then with water until the wash waters have a neutral pH. After drying over sodium sulphate, the solvent is evaporated. 10.5g of ethyl benzhydryl- thioacetate are thus obtained. Yield 93%.
Benzhydryl-thioacetohydroxamic acid
The following three solutions are prepared:
  1. Ethyl Benzhydryl-thioacetate 10.8 g (0.0378 mol) in 40 ml methanol
  2. Hydroxylamine hydrochloride 5.25 g (0.0756 mol) in 40 ml methanol
  3. Potassium Hydroxide pellets 7.3 g (0.0134 mol) in 40 ml methanol
The solutions are heated, if necessary, until they become limpid, and when the temperatures have again fallen to below 40°C, the solution of potassium hydroxide in methanol is poured into the solution of hydroxylamine hydrochloride in alcohol. Finally, at a temperature of about 5° to 10°C, the solution of ethyl benzhydryl- thioacetate is added in its turn. After leaving the reactants in contact for 10 minutes, the sodium chloride is filtered off the limpid solution obtained is kept for about 15 hours at ordinary temperature. The methanol is then evaporated under reduced pressure, the residual oil is taken up in 100 ml of water and the aqueous solution is acidified with 3 N hydrochloric acid. The hydroxamic acid which has crystallized is filtered off, washed with water and then dried. 9.1 g of product are obtained. Yield = 87.5%. Melting point 118-120°C.

Adrafinil (CRL 40,028)

10.4g (0.038 mol) of benzhydryl-thioacetohydroxamic acid are oxidized at 40°C, over the course of 2 hours, by means of 3.8 ml (0.038 mol) of hydrogen peroxide of 110 volumes strength (33%), in 100 ml of acetic acid.
When the oxidation has ended, the acetic acid is evaporated under reduced pressure and the residual oil is taken up in 60 ml of ethyl acetate. The product which has crystallized is filtered off and then purified by recrystallisation from a 3:2 (by volume) mixture of ethyl acetate and isopropyl alcohol.
8g (73%) of Adrafinil, mp 159-160°C, are thus obtained. H2O Solubility <1 g/L.

CLIP
Image result for adrafinil nmr
Figure 2: GC/MS extracted ion chromatogram (a) and mass spectrum (b) of derivatized adrafinil in the electron ionization mode (monitoring the m/z 167, 165 and 152 ions; all the four peaks are derivatised adrafinil products).
Figure 4: LC/ESI-MS full scan chromatogram of adrafinil and its metabolites (a) (modafinil acid RT 3.8 min, adrafinil RT 4.0 min, modafinil RT 4.1 min), and LC/ESI-MS full scan mass spectra of modafinil acid (b), adrafinil (c), and (d) modafinil. (b, c and d showing the similar ions at m/z 167, 165, 152 together with the appropriate sodium and potassium adducts).
Image result for adrafinil nmr
NMR

Patent
FIG. 1 shows the structure of adrafinil and its metabolites.
FIG. 2 shows the chemical synthesis of adrafinil.
Image result for adrafinil nmr
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References

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  2. Jump up to:a b Index Nominum 2000: International Drug Directory. Taylor & Francis. January 2000. pp. 20–. ISBN 978-3-88763-075-1.
  3. Jump up to:a b c d e f g h i Milgram, Norton (1999). "Adrafinil: A Novel Vigilance Promoting Agent".CNS Drug Reviews5 (3): 193–212. doi:10.1111/j.1527-3458.1999.tb00100.x. Retrieved2 October 2014.
  4. Jump up to:a b c d AFSSAPS (2011). "Point d'information sur les dossiers discutés en commission d'AMM Séance du jeudi 1er décembre 2011 - Communiqué".
  5. Jump up^ Simon P, Chermat R, Puech AJ (1983). "Pharmacological evidence of the stimulation of central alpha-adrenergic receptors". Prog. Neuropsychopharmacol. Biol. Psychiatry7 (2-3): 183–6. doi:10.1016/0278-5846(83)90105-7PMID 6310690.
  6. Jump up^ Zolkowska D, Jain R, Rothman RB, Partilla JS, Roth BL, Setola V, Prisinzano TE, Baumann MH (May 2009). "Evidence for the involvement of dopamine transporters in behavioral stimulant effects of modafinil"The Journal of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics329 (2): 738–46. doi:10.1124/jpet.108.146142.PMC 2672878Freely accessiblePMID 19197004.
  7. Jump up^ Reith ME, Blough BE, Hong WC, Jones KT, Schmitt KC, Baumann MH, Partilla JS, Rothman RB, Katz JL (Feb 2015). "Behavioral, biological, and chemical perspectives on atypical agents targeting the dopamine transporter"Drug and Alcohol Dependence147: 1–19. doi:10.1016/j.drugalcdep.2014.12.005PMC 4297708Freely accessiblePMID 25548026.
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  9. Jump up^ Ballas, Christos A; Deborah Kim; Claudia F Baldassano; Nicholas Hoeh (July 2002). "Modafinil: past, present and future". Expert Review of Neurotherapeutics2 (4): 449–57.doi:10.1586/14737175.2.4.449PMID 19810941.
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External links

Adrafinil
Adrafinil.svg
Adrafinil.png
Clinical data
Trade namesOlmifon
AHFS/Drugs.comInternational Drug Names
Routes of administrationOral
ATC codeN06BX17 (WHO)
Legal status
Legal status
  • US: Unscheduled
Pharmacokinetic data
Bioavailability80%
Metabolism75% (Liver)
MetabolitesModafinil
Biological half-life1 hour (T1/2 is 12–15 hours for modafinil)[1]
ExcretionKidney
Identifiers
Systematic (IUPAC) name: (±)-2-Benzhydrylsulfinylethanehydroxamic acid
SynonymsCRL-40028
CAS Number63547-13-7 
PubChem (CID)3033226
DrugBankDB08925 
ChemSpider2297976 Yes
UNIIBI81Z4542G Yes
KEGGD07348 Yes
ChEMBLCHEMBL93077 Yes
Chemical and physical data
FormulaC15H15NO3S
Molar mass289.351 g/mol
3D model (Jmol)Interactive image
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