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Friday, 10 November 2017

Gram-Scale Synthesis of Amines Bearing a gem-Difluorocyclopropane Moiety

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Abstract

The synthesis of monocyclic, spirocyclic and fused bicyclic secondary amines bearing a gem-difluorocyclopropane moiety via difluorocyclopropanation of unsaturated N-Boc derivatives using the trifluoromethyl(trimethyl)silane/sodium iodide [CF3SiMe3-NaI] system is described. The relative order of the substrate reactivity is established. It is shown that for the reactive alkenes the standard reaction conditions can be used, whereas for the substrates with low reactivity, slow addition of the Ruppert–Prakash reagent is necessary.
Gram-Scale Synthesis of Amines Bearing a gem-Difluorocyclopropane Moiety

Authors., Pavel S. Nosik,

DOI: 10.1002/adsc.201700857

Pavel S. Nosik,a.b Andrii O. Gerasov,a Rodion O. Boiko,a Eduard Rusanov,b Sergey V. Ryabukhin,c Oleksandr O. Grygorenko,c * Dmitriy M. Volochnyukb
a Spectrum Info Ltd., Life Chemicals Inc., Murmanska Street 5, Kyiv 02094, Ukraine

b Institute of Organic Chemistry, National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine, Murmanska Street 5, Kyiv 02660, Ukraine

c National Taras Shevchenko University of Kyiv, Volodymyrska Street 64, Kyiv 01601, Ukraine
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* Corresponding author. E-mail: gregor@univ.kiev.ua.

Oleksandr Grygorenko at National Taras Shevchenko University of Kyiv

Oleksandr Grygorenko

Ph D
Professor (Associate)
National Taras Shevchenko University of Kyiv, Volodymyrska Street 64, Kyiv 01601, Ukraine
National Taras Shevchenko University of Kyiv
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Dmitriy M. Volochnyuk

Institute of Organic Chemistry, National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine, Murmanska Street 5, Kyiv 02660, Ukraine
Dmitriy M. Volochnyuk was born in 1980 in Irpen, Kyiv region, Ukraine. He graduated from Kyiv State Taras Shevchenko University in 2002 and was awarded his M.S. degree in chemistry. He received his Ph.D. in organic chemistry in 2005 from the Institute of Organic Chemistry, National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine under the supervision of Dr. A. Kostyuk for research on the chemistry of enamines. At present, he divides his time between the Institute of Organic Chemisty, as Deputy Head of Organophosphorus Department and Senior Researcher, and Enamine Ltd (Kyiv, Ukraine), as Director of Chemistry. His main scientific interests are related to fluoroorganic, organophosphorus, heterocyclic and combinatorial chemistry, and multistep organic synthesis. He is a coauthor of more than 80 papers
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  • Given that the incorporation of small fluorinated fragments in drug-like molecules continues to rise, this has created an onus on the synthetic community to provide robust, scalable routes to these molecules of interest. Grygorenko and co-workers have reported on a synthesis of amines featuring a gem-difluorocyclopropane moiety using the readily available Ruppert–Prakash reagent ( Adv. Synth. Catal. 201710.1002/adsc.201700857).
  • Evaluating a series of olefins under the standard reaction conditions in refluxing THF indicated that only the most reactive olefins (gem-disubstituted) provided good yields of the desired cyclopropane, while other solvents proved to be ineffective. Conducting a control experiment omitting the substrate demonstrated that the key issue herein was competitive decomposition of the TMSCF3 to a series of gaseous byproducts under the reaction conditions.
  • Whereas continuous flow provides a potential to mitigate against this, the current report demonstrated that slow addition of the reagent to the reaction mixture also provided a practical solution to this problem.
  • Employing this approach enabled not only excellent conversions and yields to be realized but also allowed reactivity trends to be identified. In general, gem-disubstituted are the most reactive with the trend correlating with steric hindrance.
  • For other classes of olefins, electronics are the major factor with the ability of the substituents to stabilize a positive charge in the transition state consistent with a nonsynchronous formation of the two sigma bonds in the cycloaddition the key consideration. The removal of the Boc-protecting group under standard acidic conditions provided the amines as their hydrochloride salts.
  • Eduard Rusanov at Institute of Organic Chemistry National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine
  • Eduard Rusanov

    PhD
    Head of Crystallographic Lab./Director of the crystallographic facility Nat. Acad. of Sci. Ukraine 'Single Mjlecule Crystallography' at IOC
    Institute of Organic Chemistry... · DEPARTMENT OF PHYSICOCHEMICAL INVESTIGATIONS
     
STR2STR1
tert-Butyl 1,1-difluoro-6-azaspiro[2.5]octane-6-carboxylate (10a):
Yield: 66.7 g (91%) (Method A); off-white crystalline powder: mp 46–48 8C;
1H NMR (CDCl3 , 400 MHz): d= 3.57–3.42 (m, 2H), 3.40–3.27 (m, 2H), 1.66–1.47 (m, 4H), 1.44 (s, J=2.3 Hz, 9H), 1.08 (t, J=8.3 Hz, 2H);
13C NMR (CDCl3, 101 MHz): d=154.2, 115.4 (t, J=288.1 Hz), 79.3, 42.8, 28.4, 28.1, 26.8 (t, J=10.0 Hz), 21.0 (t, J=10.1 Hz);
19F NMR (CDCl3 , 376 MHz): d=@140.6;
MS (EI): m/z= 247 (M+ ), 192 (M+@t-Bu), 174 (M+@t-BuO), 147 (M+@Boc), 127 (M+@Boc@HF);
Anal. calcd. for C12H19F2NO2 : C 58.29, H 7.74, N 5.66; found: C 58.49, H 8.02, N 5.30.
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